e-Portfolio & e-learning

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Los portafolios como innovación educativa

tomado de Flickr

tomado de Flickr

Para entender a mayor detalle los portafolios digitales como innovación educativa, su entendimiento puede darse desde tres perspectivas que permiten relacionar su introducción en la educación superior y los procesos innovadores que en ella se dan. Primero, desde el punto de vista de la innovación educativa considerada como algo nuevo dada la idea, contenido, objeto, tipo de actividad o procedimiento que es incorporado a algo existente: sistema, institución, personas, estructuras o procesos, como la califica Rivas (2000). Sin embargo en la práctica se ha utilizado en muchos casos como una necesidad, más que una novedad, generado así, su poder transformador como elemento de cambio justificable en la mayoría de los procesos de innovación educativa, independientemente de la naturaleza de su aparición en un contexto educativo. Continuando con la idea de innovación educativa como la incorporación de un elemento nuevo en un sistema tradicional, el eportafolio presenta estas mismas características, precisamente por su naturaleza orientada al diagnóstico, resolución de problemas, desarrollo organizativo, auto-revisión escolar y desarrollo profesional en las instituciones académicas; lo anterior trae consigo la modificación o alteración de una realidad educativa.

Segundo, desde el punto de vista de las características de las acciones innovadoras que se desenvuelven de estos procesos innovadores en la Universidad.  Cabe destacar primero que son acciones, muchas veces iniciadas por los actores directos de la innovación, es decir, los profesores mismos, que vienen a realizar las operaciones para iniciar los procesos de transformación. Estos mismos agentes de cambio, denominados de esta forma a los docentes, deben pasar por procesos de modificación del comportamiento, mientras son afectados por los procesos innovadores. Aunque estos agentes de cambio deberían ser los directores, y encargados de las políticas educativas, esta evidenciado que estas iniciativas nacen en primera instancia de los profesores a partir de una necesidad encontrada en los mismo estudiantes.

Por esta misma razón, la introducción de los portafolios digitales comporta la configuración de un proceso, en el que se distingue; una entrada o aportación que se incorpora al sistema educativo, una serie de momentos o secuencias constitutivas de un proceso de integración, en el sistema, con un ajuste o adaptación mutua, una transformación en el sistema, que comporta una mejora, resolución de problemas u optimización de estructuras y procesos. Por consiguiente, las consecuencias están derivadas de la transformación en la Universidad, originadas desde la planta docente o un grupo de profesores que se adaptan al cambio.  Como no todos los docentes reflejan un perfil de adaptación y modificación de su ambiente de trabajo, las modificaciones del comportamiento de los agentes de cambio se hace necesaria. Estos llegan a experimentar e implicarse en cambios culturales de adaptación a un escenario tecnológico. Por consiguiente para que los cambios esperados puedan ser posibles, se concibe replantear algunos de los aspectos y variables de la acción innovadora, con portafolios digitales como son:   a) La organización y la planificación de los procesos educativos, b) el diseño y desarrollo de las actividades, c) el diseño, desarrollo y formato de los materiales de formación, d) el diseño y desarrollo de los instrumentos y procesos de evaluación, e) las relaciones personales y profesionales entre los profesores y entre estos alumnos, f) los formatos de la comunicación, g) el replanteamiento de los roles del profesor y el alumno  en la acción educativa, y h) el proceso de relación y comunicación con el entorno.

Tercero, desde el punto de vista de la innovación educativa en entornos tecnológicos, en este sentido, la innovación educativa no implica solo traer elementos tecnológicos o digitales a las instituciones, es pensada también en escenarios donde el terreno de lo tecnológico ya hace parte de la cultura y la organización de las Universidades en mayor o menor medida, y por lo menos en los países donde la brecha digital se ha reducido. Es desde allí que el docente tiene la capacidad para construir sin dificultad entornos formativos adaptados a las características de sus estudiantes: estilos de aprendizaje, intereses, motivaciones, diversidad de inteligencias y conocimientos previos. Para Cabero (2008) los entornos educativos TIC ofrecen nuevos escenarios para la formación y el aprendizaje, con las características del siglo XXI: tecnológicos, mediáticos, deslocalizados espacialmente de la información, flexibles, individualizados, colaborativos, activos, pluripersonales y pluridimensionales/multiétnicos.

La innovación en la educación se caracteriza por la influencia del e-learning 2.0[1], que actualmente se concibe como la oferta de cursos en línea y se caracteriza por todas las acciones formativas que se realizan apoyándose en las nuevas tecnologías de la información y comunicación fundamentalmente en Internet, y en sus herramientas de comunicación síncronas y asincrónicas, para alcanzar un entorno flexible para la interacción del alumno con la información, y la participación de la acción educativa (Cabero y Castaño, 2007).  El e-learning también se caracteriza por la utilización de las plataformas tecnológicas de distribución del aprendizaje (Learning Management System). En este sentido el e-learning es de suma importancia en cuanto a la actitud que genera hacia la formación permanente y para la gestión del propio conocimiento. El e-learning 2.0 emplea las características de la Web 2.0 en el mundo de los entornos virtuales de aprendizaje. Esto último también implica innovar en un objetivo exclusivamente pedagógico y que se centra en mejorar los métodos educativos, buscando definir el rol del profesor hacia el cambio de aprendizaje centrado en el estudiante, quien debe tomar control de su aprendizaje con las herramientas Web 2.0, que están diseñadas para que los propios estudiantes las utilicen por sí mismos. Igualmente, también los portafolios digitales al estar integrados muchos de ellos con las plataformas de gestión del aprendizaje y hacer parte de los ambientes personales de aprendizaje (PLE)[2] están llamados a jugar un papel importante.


[1] elearning 2.0

[2] PLE


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PLE – e-Portfolio

wordle eportfolio 10

The digital portfolio is conceived as a strategy to collect evidence in the past and present, inside and outside the educational context. This may occur as a digital product or any resource that can be transformed into a digital artifact. The evidence collected as digital products shape the body and the heart of the apprentice proveemal ePortfolios and meaning constructed from reflection. Generalemente, the portfolio is designed to be shown to a particular audience, which has made the learner during the learning process and the value that it gives you. It is the best way for the learner to show their interests, emotions, reflected in a learning style, which is excited and the ups and downs he has experienced to reach the present situation (Castaño, A. 2009).

On the other hand, a PLE is presented as a set of strategies where the ePortfolio becomes the heart both may help in the informal learning skills, the acquisition and transfer of skills. Some of them focus on formally defined or acquired skills in informal areas. Therefore, the PLE and the Portfolio may join to form a personal development plan of the individual, it is essential to consider the social and knowledge. To get to the union of a PLE eportfolio and to accommodate personal development plan; tools required to both share directed to the same purpose. This requires many of the same aspects of these two concepts are drawn from the life of the learner, a portfolio for life (Grant, S, 2010). Due to its conceptual and technical aspects of the characteristics of the PLE and ePortfolios, requires an analysis of both to reach a consensus between these two tendencies which until now are coming to light, thanks to advances in the technologies applied to education. Here we introduce some aspects of both concepts.

The relationship between Personal Learning Environment and Digital Portfolio

The concept of personal learning environment (PLE) is away from the strict control and direction to approach the openness, flexibility, dynamic participation in learning (Peña-López, 2010). The term PLE was formulated for the first time in an article by Bill Olivier and Oleg Liber  (2001). The concept is introduced as a portable learning environment to support the teaching – learning throughout life, it is presented as an opposition between centralization and decentralization is going to design a technology infrastructure based learning support a central server and distributed architecture where information is accessed point to point, person to person. Currently the latter is reflected in most Web 2.0 applications, which in turn make the PLE built by most related apprentices learning involve information technology. The concept developed by Oliver and Liber focus on integration between institutional learning environments and personal learning environments, thus could occur intercom to allow the learner to make better use of its own system, which could be stored information related to personal learning and could bring information that is continuous learning “throughout life” and cross several episodes where it occurs.

A system as such, should enable learners to record their own records of achievement and publish the evidence to be created throughout the process, that is closely related to a digital portfolio. A digital portfolio would then make it part of personal learning environment, characterized by enabling learners to design their own learning strategies, managing, selecting, presenting and exchanging relevant information. All this appears both in learning that occur in distributed systems and centralized systems. It is therefore of this so that the portfolio can be a mediator between the institution and the outside, which can be taken accrediting purposes and is valued by the same learner and context. Ideal would be when blurring the boundaries of learning occurred “between walls” to that which occurs in the Web itself. This above is part of what Siemmens (2006) and Downes (2006) have called connected learning or connectivism. Advocates Connectivism learning that occurs at different nodes interact with information. “Knowledge and learning therefore this knowledge is distributed, which means that you are not located in any particular place, rather it consists of a network of connections from the experience and interaction with a community known”. The knowledge resides in networks and learning is facilitated through technology and focuses on connecting specialized information. The ability to see the connections, recognizing patterns, and making sense of different fields, ideas and concepts, the above represents the core of today’s individual skills. Learning then arises from the decision-making.

A system as such, should enable learners to record their own records of achievement and publish the evidence to be created throughout the process, that is closely related to a digital portfolio. A digital portfolio would then make it part of personal learning environment, characterized by enabling learners to design their own learning strategies, managing, selecting, presenting and exchanging relevant information. All this appears both in learning that occur in distributed systems and centralized systems. It is therefore of this so that the portfolio can be a mediator between the institution and the outside, which can be taken accrediting purposes and is valued by the same learner and context. Ideal would be when blurring the boundaries of learning occurred “between walls” to that which occurs in the Web itself. This above is part of what Siemmens (2006) and Downes (2006) have called connected learning or connectivism. Advocates Connectivism learning that occurs at different nodes interact with information. “Knowledge and learning therefore this knowledge is distributed, which means that you are not located in any particular place, rather it consists of a network of connections from the experience and interaction with a community known”. The knowledge resides in networks and learning is facilitated through technology and focuses on connecting specialized information. The ability to see the connections, recognizing patterns, and making sense of different fields, ideas and concepts, the above represents the core of today’s individual skills. Learning then arises from the decision-making.


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Personal Learning Environment

learning_2013

Personal Learning Environments are systems that help students and teachers to manage and take control of their own learning. Therefore, it supports students to set their own learning goals, manage their own learning while they communicate with others in their learning process. PLE is a relatively new term that was first introduced in 2004. However, the action of learning everywhere has been around long time ago. The concept is being characterized with the initial push of digital technologies applied to education. Atwell (2007) describes it as a concept based on the Web 2.0 and social software.

Personal learning environment is based on the idea that learning takes place in different contexts and situations.  It isn’t provided by a single supplier and it recognizes the role of the individual in the organization of their own learning, including the integration of formal learning episodes, non-formal and informal. This unique experience using social networks that cross institutional boundaries and the use of protocols network (Peer-to-Peer, Web services, content .syndication) connect a number of resources and systems within a personally-managed space.

Additionally, in order to expand the concept of personal learning environment and its relationship with e-portfolios. It is essential to know the characteristics of the practice with technologies that enhance learning and communication.  When people  use technology, they mostly see learning in a connected network of nodes of information, it produces and interaction due to its dynamic relationships (Atwell, 2007, 2010; Waters, 2008; Downes, 2010).

Consequently, PLE is a concept where technology and pedagogy  feed each other, there are several factors that come into play, including the widespread use of the tools and Web 2.0 services in all educational levels and modalities. PLE can develop the potential of service oriented architectures in a distributed learning networks and knowledge development. As a result, promoting and supporting the development of communities of practice allowing the formation of technology to bring together experts, teachers, businesses and institutions.

A self-organized learning provides the basis for the establishment of a model of learning that goes beyond the curriculum and centralized models, provides a new learning model characterized by the convergence of a lifelong learning, and ecological learning, a space run by the student. (Knowles, MS 1975). PLE offers not only personal spaces which are owned and controlled by the student; but also requires a social context through which to connect with other personal spaces in order to share effective knowledge creation.

It is a process in which individuals take the initiative with or without the help of others in diagnosing their learning needs. Additionally, they formulate their learning goals, identify human and material resources for learning, select and implement strategies for learning and assessment of learning outcomes.  (Argyris and Schön, 1978).

However, in their research (Krieslinger and Gillet 2008; Friedler, 2007) put the PLE as the source for a framework that each person create in the network, ‘materialized’ in the tools they use to create their own learning environment . This differentiation comes as two basic lines with a few trends within each line (Sclater, 2008) and the huge number of opinions expressed about it have led to many approaches to what is and is not a PLE. It maintains a lively discussion that has last so far (Siemens, 2008).

Finally, PLE is conceived as a set of tools, data sources, connections and activities that each person used assiduously to learn. This means that the personal learning environment that includes both a person query to find out the relationship  they have with such information. As well as the people who serve as a reference, the connections between these people, the mechanisms that serve to rework and rebuild information and knowledge.  Both in the phase of reflection and individual recreation and at the stage in which reflection helps them in the reconstruction.

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